Independence Day in Mongolia comes on 29 December to remember the date when Mongolia declared its independence from China in 1911.
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The history of Mongolia’s struggle for independence goes back for centuries. After the great Mongolian Khanate empires finally weakened and crumbled, in the early 1600’s, Mongolia was threatened by the Manchus. Therefore, they went to the Chinese Ming Dynasty for help in defending themselves. However, the Manchus ended up taking control of China under the Qing Dynasty and also taking over Mongolia.
Finally, the Qing Dynasty fell in 1911, and Mongolia declared its independence that year on 29 December. Not yet succeeding in gaining their freedom on their own, in 1915, Mongolia got Russia to intervene in their behalf during the Khyagta Talks. The end result was that “Inner Mongolia”, still a province of China today, was separated from “Outer Mongolia”, which is modern day Mongolia. Both were given limited autonomy within the Chinese Empire.
In 1919, however, with Russia busy with a civil war, China cancelled the autonomy and invaded Mongolia. But the Soviet Union invaded Mongolia and defeated them, so that Outer Mongolia has remained a separate country ever since.